THE HISTORY OF NUBIAN ART

NAPATA & MEROE "HISTORY & LOCATION"

 1- The city of Napata.

      Napata from the beginning of its history, was an outpost of the kingdom of Kerma, which was established by the early kings of the 18th dynasty, which located in the midpoint of the Nile great bend, as it was the site of an important river crossing on the north-south. In addition to that, the city of Napata gained its fame from the religious significance of Gebel Barkal, as the Egyptian promoted the belief that the primary form of their god dwelt inside the pure mountain "Gebel Barkal". The sun-god Amun in Egypt was represented as a man, while at Napata as a man with a ram head, or as a crowned ram with a solar disk. It seems that the Egyptians had identified a pre-existing god from the land of Nubia as a local form of their own supreme god Amun, who was considered to be the important source of the royal power of Egypt and Kush, perhaps for this reason, the name "Napata" is thought to have been derived from the word ipt which means the sanctuary or the forbidden place "Gebel Barkal".

      From the time of King Amonhotep II there is another mention of Napata, as the king hanged the body of a Syrian rebel on its wall, in the contrary of the did of his father "the wise king Tuthmosis III", who took the Syrian princes to be in his palace to give him obedience and obeisance with their return to their countries to rule its provinces.

      The city of Napata is located on the right bank of the Nile, about 40 kilometers downstream from the 4th Cataract, and its modern name is "Kareima" which scattered over a distance of about 24 km along both banks of the Nile, including the royal cemeteries of El-Kurru, Gebel Barkal and Nuri.

    2- The city of Meroe.

      The city of Meroe is located on the east bank of the Nile, about 200 Km north of Khartoum, and it was the second urban center of the binary kingdoms of Kush. From the 5th century B.C., this city became the permanent royal residence of the Kushite kings of Napata, according to the mention of this city from the text of king Amani-nete-yerike at Kawa, while the Meroitic kings went to Napata on their coronation journey through the main sanctuaries of the gods.